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Carl Heflin
Carl Heflin

Eac Multi Game Multiprogram 5 7


Program responsiveness allows a program to run even if part of it is blocked using multithreading. This can also be done if the process is performing a lengthy operation. For example - A web browser with multithreading can use one thread for user contact and another for image loading at the same time.




Eac Multi Game Multiprogram 5 7



In a multiprocessor architecture, each thread can run on a different processor in parallel using multithreading. This increases concurrency of the system. This is in direct contrast to a single processor system, where only one process or thread can run on a processor at a time.


Time-sharing is a technique which enables many people, located at various terminals, to use a particular computer system at the same time. Time-sharing or multitasking is a logical extension of multiprogramming. Processor's time which is shared among multiple users simultaneously is termed as time-sharing.


The operating system uses CPU scheduling and multiprogramming to provide each user with a small portion of a time. Computer systems that were designed primarily as batch systems have been modified to time-sharing systems.


A Network Operating System runs on a server and provides the server the capability to manage data, users, groups, security, applications, and other networking functions. The primary purpose of the network operating system is to allow shared file and printer access among multiple computers in a network, typically a local area network (LAN), a private network or to other networks.


Soft real-time systems are less restrictive. A critical real-time task gets priority over other tasks and retains the priority until it completes. Soft real-time systems have limited utility than hard real-time systems. For example, multimedia, virtual reality, Advanced Scientific Projects like undersea exploration and planetary rovers, etc.


Sharing the processor, when two or more programs reside in memory at the same time, is referred as multiprogramming. Multiprogramming assumes a single shared processor. Multiprogramming increases CPU utilization by organizing jobs so that the CPU always has one to execute.


Process scheduling is an essential part of a Multiprogramming operating systems. Such operating systems allow more than one process to be loaded into the executable memory at a time and the loaded process shares the CPU using time multiplexing.


The primary objective of the job scheduler is to provide a balanced mix of jobs, such as I/O bound and processor bound. It also controls the degree of multiprogramming. If the degree of multiprogramming is stable, then the average rate of process creation must be equal to the average departure rate of processes leaving the system.


Medium-term scheduling is a part of swapping. It removes the processes from the memory. It reduces the degree of multiprogramming. The medium-term scheduler is in-charge of handling the swapped out-processes.


A context switch is the mechanism to store and restore the state or context of a CPU in Process Control block so that a process execution can be resumed from the same point at a later time. Using this technique, a context switcher enables multiple processes to share a single CPU. Context switching is an essential part of a multitasking operating system features.


Each thread belongs to exactly one process and no thread can exist outside a process. Each thread represents a separate flow of control. Threads have been successfully used in implementing network servers and web server. They also provide a suitable foundation for parallel execution of applications on shared memory multiprocessors. The following figure shows the working of a single-threaded and a multithreaded process.


In this case, thread management is done by the Kernel. There is no thread management code in the application area. Kernel threads are supported directly by the operating system. Any application can be programmed to be multithreaded. All of the threads within an application are supported within a single process.


Some operating system provide a combined user level thread and Kernel level thread facility. Solaris is a good example of this combined approach. In a combined system, multiple threads within the same application can run in parallel on multiple processors and a blocking system call need not block the entire process. Multithreading models are three types


The following diagram shows the many-to-many threading model where 6 user level threads are multiplexing with 6 kernel level threads. In this model, developers can create as many user threads as necessary and the corresponding Kernel threads can run in parallel on a multiprocessor machine. This model provides the best accuracy on concurrency and when a thread performs a blocking system call, the kernel can schedule another thread for execution.


Many-to-one model maps many user level threads to one Kernel-level thread. Thread management is done in user space by the thread library. When thread makes a blocking system call, the entire process will be blocked. Only one thread can access the Kernel at a time, so multiple threads are unable to run in parallel on multiprocessors.


There is one-to-one relationship of user-level thread to the kernel-level thread. This model provides more concurrency than the many-to-one model. It also allows another thread to run when a thread makes a blocking system call. It supports multiple threads to execute in parallel on microprocessors.


Though performance is usually affected by swapping process but it helps in running multiple and big processes in parallel and that's the reason Swapping is also known as a technique for memory compaction.


There is always a device controller and a device driver for each device to communicate with the Operating Systems. A device controller may be able to handle multiple devices. As an interface its main task is to convert serial bit stream to block of bytes, perform error correction as necessary.


These are the libraries which provide richer and simplified interface to access the functionality of the kernel or ultimately interactive with the device drivers. Most of the user-level I/O software consists of library procedures with some exception like spooling system which is a way of dealing with dedicated I/O devices in a multiprogramming system.


Very often, datasets are too big to fit on one machine. Distributed data processing breaks down these large datasets and stores them across multiple machines or servers. It rests on Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS). A distributed data processing system has a high fault tolerance. If one server in the network fails, the data processing tasks can be reallocated to other available servers.


Multiprocessing is the method of data processing where two or more than two processors work on the same dataset. It might sound exactly like distributed processing, but there is a difference. In multiprocessing, different processors reside within the same system. Thus, they are present in the same geographical location. If there is a component failure, it can reduce the speed of the system.


Distributed processing, on the other hand, uses servers that are independent of each other and can be present in different geographical locations. Since almost all systems today come with the ability to process data in parallel, almost every data processing system uses multiprocessing.


However, in the context of this article, multiprocessing can be seen as having an on-premise data processing system. Typically, companies that handle very sensitive information might choose on-premise data processing as opposed to distributed processing. For example, pharmaceutical companies or businesses working in the oil and gas extraction industry. 350c69d7ab


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