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Wesley Cooper
Wesley Cooper

Free Holborn Reading Scale Manual Test Sheets Programs For First Time


In the Roman Empire, the first emperor Augustus provided the Cura Annonae or grain dole for citizens who could not afford to buy food every month. Social welfare was enlarged by the Emperor Trajan.[15] Trajan's program brought acclaim from many, including Pliny the Younger.[16] The Song dynasty government (960 CE) supported multiple programs which could be classified as social welfare, including the establishment of retirement homes, public clinics, and paupers' graveyards. According to economist Robert Henry Nelson, "The medieval Roman Catholic Church operated a far-reaching and comprehensive welfare system for the poor ..."[17][18] From the 14th century onward the governments of the Italian city-states began to partner with the church to provide welfare and education to the lower classes.[19] In later Protestant European nations such as the Dutch Republic welfare was managed by local guilds until the abolition of the guild system in the early 19th century.[20][21] In the free imperial cities of the Holy Roman Empire the city governments in cities like Nuremberg could take control of the collection and distribution of public welfare.[22][23]




Free Holborn Reading Scale Manual Test Sheets Programs For First Time


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